1. Hall-Stoodley L, Stoodley P. Biofilm formation and dispersal and the transmission of human pathogens. Trends Microbiol. 2005; 13(1): 7–10.
  2. International Wound Infection Institute (IWII) Wound infection in clinical practice. Wounds International.
  3. Hall-Stoodley L, Stoodley P. Evolving concepts in biofilm infections. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11(7):1034-43.
  4. Stewart P.S., Costerton, J.W. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms. 2001; 358(9276):135–138.
  5. Malone M, Goeres DM, Gosbell I, Vickery K, Jensen S, Stoodley P. Approaches to biofilm-associated infections: the need for standardized biofilm methods for medically relevant clinical applications. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016; in press.
  6. Leid JG, Willson CJ, Shirtliff ME, et al. The exopolysaccharide alginate protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm bacteria from IFN-mediated macrophage killing. J Immunol. 2005;175(11):7512-7518.
  7. Gilbert P, Maira-Litran T, McBain AJ, et al. The physiology and collective recalcitrance of microbial biofilm communities. Adv Microb Physiol. 2002;46:202–256.
  8. PercivalSL, Vuotto C, Donelli G, Lipsky BA. Biofilms and wounds:   an identification algorithm and potential treatment options. Adv Wound Care.   2015;1;4(7):389-397.
  9. Sutherland I. Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbiology 2001;47(1): 3-0.
  10. Costerton JW, Lewandowski Z, Caldwell DE, Korber DR, Lappin-Scott HM. Microbial Annu Rev Microbiol. 1995;49:711–745.
  11. Data on file. Puraply comparison test. Next Science report TR-05-17-003.
  12. James GA, Swogger E, Wolcott R, et al. Biofilms in chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2008;16(1):37–44.
  13. Costerton W, Veeh R, Shirtliff M, et al. The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007;117(1):278.
  14. SenCK, Gordillo GM, Roy S, Kirsner R, Lambert L, Hunt TK, Gottrup F, Gurtner GC, Longaker MT. Human skin wounds: a major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy. Wound Repair Regen. 2009 Nov-Dec;17(6):763-71.
  15. Bjarnsholt T, Kirketerp-Møller K, Jensen P.Ø. et al. Why chronic wounds will not heal: a novel hypothesis. Wound Repair Regen. 2008; 16(10): 2–10.
  16. Lavery LA, Armstrong GA, Wunderlich RP, et al. Risk factors for foot infections in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(6):1288-1293.
  17. Marsh PD, Bradshaw DJ. Dental plaque as a biofilm. J Ind Microbiol. 1995;15(3):169–
  18. Joo HS, Otto M. Molecular basis of in-vivo biofilm formation by bacterial  Chemistry & biology. 2012;19(12):1503-1513.
  19. Hall-Stoodley L, Hu FZ, Gieseke A, et al. Direct detection of bacterial biofilms on the middle-ear mucosa of children with chronic otitis media. 2006;296(2):202–211.
  20. Gupta K, Margques C, Petrova OE, Sauer K. Antimicrobial tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is activated during an early developmental stage and requires the two component hybrid sagS. Journal of Bacteriology. 2013;195(21):4975-4987.
  21. Donlan RM, Costerton JW. Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002; 15(2): 167-93
  22. Attinger C, Wolcott R. Clinically Addressing Biofilm in Chronic Wounds. Advances in Wound Care. 2012;1(3):127-132.
  23. Wolcott R. Disrupting the biofilm matrix improves wound healing outcomes. Journal of Wound Care. 2015;24(80):366-371.
  24. Miller KG, Tran PL, Haley CL, et al. Next science wound gel technology, a novel agent that inhibits biofilm development by gram-positive and gram-negative wound Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(6):3060–3072.
  25. Data on File. Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University. Next Science Report TR-10-12-004 Data on File. Texas Tech Unviersity. Next Science Report TR-10-12-001, TR-10-12-005.
  26. North American Science Associates (NAMSA) Safety Evaluation Report. N14006, per ISO 10993-10.
  27. ISO Intracutaneous Reactivity Testing. WuXi AppTec protocol #9107015-5, per ISO 10993-10.
  28. Porcine Dermal Full-Thickness Wound Wash Study. WuXi AppTec report 32255.
  29. Data on file. Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University. Next Science Report TR-10-12-004.
  30. Fair RJ, Tor Y. Antibiotics and bacterial resistance in the 21st century. Perspect Medicin Chem. 2014 Aug 28;6:25-64.
  31. Wessels S, Ingmer H. Modes of action of three disinfectant active substances: A review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 67, 456–467 (2013).
  32. Wolcott RD, Rhoads DD, Dowd SE. Biofilms and chronic wound inflammation. Journal of Wound Care. 2008;17(9):333-341.
  33. James GA, Swogger E, Wolcott RD, Pulcini ED, et al. Biofilms in chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2008;16(1):37-44.
  34. Tajudeen BA, Schwartz JS, Palmer JN. Understanding biofilms in chronic sinusitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Feb;16(2):10.
  35. Donlan RM. Biofilms and device-associated infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7(2):277–281.
  36. Coenye T, Honraet K, Rossel B, Nelis HJ. Biofilms in Skin Infections: Propionibacterium acnes and Acne Vulgaris. Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets. 2008;8(3):156-159.
  37. Data on file. Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University. Next Science report TR-02-14-025.
  38. Data on file. Center for Biofilm Engineering at Montana State University. Next Science report TR-02-14-010.
  39. Esin L, Antonelli, PJ, Ojano-Dirain C. Effect of Haemophilus influenza Exposure on Staphylococcus aureus Tympanostomy Tube Attachment and Biofilm Formation. JAMA 2014
  40. Data on File: Next Science Report TR-10-14-025 (A)
  41. Laboratory testing data on file.
  42. Petrova, O. S. (2012). Sticky situations: key components that control bacterial surface attachment. Journal of Bacteriology 194(10) May, 2413-2425.
  43. Bispo PJ, Haas W, Gilmore MS. Biofilms in infections of the eye. Pathogens. 2015;4(1):111-36.
  44. Moreau-Marquis S, Stanton BA, O’Toole GA. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in the cystic fibrosis airway. A short review. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008;21(4):595-9.
  45. Delcaru C, Alexandru I, Podgoreanu P, et al. Microbial Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis: Etiology, Pathogenicity, and Combating strategies. Young LS, ed. Pathogens. 2016;5(4):65.
  46. Machado D, Castro J, Palmeira-de-Oliveira A, Martinez-de-Oliveira J, Cerca N. Bacterial Vaginosis Biofilms: Challenges to Current Therapies and Emerging Solutions. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:1528.
  47. Wolcott R, Cutting KF, Dowd S. Surgical site infections: biofilms, dehiscence and delayed healing. Wounds UK. 2008;4(4):108-3.
  48. Elgharably H, Mann E, Awad H, et al. First evidence of sternal wound biofilm following cardiac surgery. PloS one. 2013;8(8):e70360.
  49. Edmiston CE, McBain AJ, Kiernan M, Leaper DJ. A narrative review of microbial biofilm in postoperative surgical site infections: clinical presentation and treatment. Journal of wound care. 2016;25(12):693-702.
  50. Wolcott, R., Rhoads, D., Bennett, M., Wolcott, B., Gogokhia, L., Costerton, J. & Dowd, S. (2010). Chronic wounds and the medical biofilm paradigm. Journal of Wound Care, 19(2), p45-50.
  51. Mah T., O’Toole G., Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents. TRENDS in Microbiology Vol.9 No.1 January 2001 p. 34-39
  52. Healogics Wound Science Initiative White Paper 2017
  53. Dorion, H. & Gruber, B. (2018). Pathogenesis of surgical site infection (SSI) – The 3rd Edition: Prevention & Management. Retrieved from, http://laparoscopy.blogs.com/prevention_management_3/2010/07/pathogenesisofsurgicalsiteinfectionssi.html
  54. Scott R., The Direct Medical Costs of Healthcare-Associated Infection in US Hospitals and the Benefits of Prevention. CDC March 2009
  55. Flemming, HC. & Wingender, J. Microbiology (2010), 8, p.623-633

MPN-WEB-023 Rev B